Paediatric population pharmacokinetics of itraconazole and its active metabolite hydroxy-itraconazole in cystic fibrosis and bone marrow transplant patients
Hennig, S. (1,2), Wainwright, CE. (3), Bell, SC. (4), Miller, H. (2) Friberg, LE. (1) and Charles, BG. (1)
1. University of Queensland, 2. Department of Pharmacy, Royal Children’s Hospital, 3. Department of Respiratory, Royal Children’s Hospital, 4. Department of Thoracic Medicine, Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to characterise the population pharmacokinetics (popPK) properties of itraconazole (ITRA) and its active metabolite hydroxy-ITRA in a representative paediatric population of cystic fibrosis (CF) and bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients. The goals were to determine the relative bioavailability between the two oral formulations, and to explore improved dosage regimens in these patients.
Methods: All paediatric patients with CF taking oral ITRA for the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and patients undergoing BMT who were taking ITRA for prophylaxis of any fungal infection were eligible for the study. A minimum of two blood samples were drawn after the capsules and also after switching to oral solution, or vice versa. ITRA and hydroxy-ITRA plasma concentrations were measured by HPLC. A nonlinear mixed-effect modelling approach (NONMEM 5.1.1) was used to describe the PK of ITRA and hydroxy-ITRA simultaneously. Simulations were used to assess dosing strategies in these patients.
Results: Forty-nine patients (29CF, 20 BMT) were recruited to the study who provided 227 blood samples for the population analysis. A 1-compartment model with 1st order absorption and elimination best described ITRA kinetics, with 1st order conversion to hydroxy-ITRA. For ITRA, the apparent clearance (ClItra/F) and volume of distribution (Vitra/F) was 35.5L/h and 672L, respectively; the absorption rate constant for the capsule formulation was 0.0901 h-1 and for the oral solution formulation it was 0.959 h-1. The capsule comparative bioavailability (vs. solution) was 0.55. For hydroxy-ITRA, the apparent volume of distribution and clearance were 10.6 L and 5.28 L/h, respectively. Of several screened covariates only allometrically scaled total body weight significantly improved the fit to the data. No difference between the two populations was found.
Conclusion: The developed popPK model adequately described the pharmacokinetics of ITRA and hydroxy-ITRA in paediatric patients with CF and patients undergoing BMT. High inter-patient variability confirmed previous data in CF, leukaemia and BMT patients. From the population model, simulations showed the standard dose (5 mg/kg/day) needs to be doubled for the solution formulation and even 4 times more given of the capsules to achieve an adequate target therapeutic trough plasma concentration of 0.5 mg/L in these patients.
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