Population pharmacokinetic study of gentamicin: a retrospective analysis in a large cohort of neonate patients
Aline Fuchs (1), Monia Guidi (1, 2), Eric Giannoni (3), Thierry Buclin (1), Nicolas Widmer (1), Chantal Csajka (1, 2)
(1) Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Service of Biomedicine, Department of Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, (2) School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland, (3) Service of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Objectives: Gentamicin is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for suspected or proven infection in newborns. Because of age-associated (pre- and post- natal) changes in body composition and organ function, large interindividual variability in gentamicin drug levels exists, thus requiring a close monitoring of this drug due to its narrow therapeutic index . We aimed to investigate clinical and demographic factors influencing gentamicin pharmacokinetics (PK) in a large cohort of unselected newborns and to explore optimal regimen based on simulation.
Methods: All gentamicin concentration data from newborns treated at the University Hospital Center of Lausanne between December 2006 and October 2011 were retrieved. Gentamicin concentrations were measured within the frame of a routine therapeutic drug monitoring program, in which 2 concentrations (at 1h and 12h) are systematically collected after the first administered dose, and a few additional concentrations are sampled along the treatment course. A population PK analysis was performed by comparing various structural models, and the effect of clinical and demographic factors on gentamicin disposition was explored using NONMEM®.
Results: A total of 3039 concentrations collected in 994 preterm (median gestational age 32.3 weeks, range 24.2-36.5 weeks) and 455 term newborns were used in the analysis. Most of the data (86%) were sampled after the first dose (C1 h and C12 h). A two-compartment model best characterized gentamicin PK. Average clearance (CL) was 0.044 L/h/kg (CV 25%), central volume of distribution (Vc) 0.442 L/kg (CV 18%), intercompartmental clearance (Q) 0.040 L/h/kg and peripheral volume of distribution (Vp) 0.122 L/kg. Body weight, gestational age and postnatal age positively influenced CL. The use of both gestational age and postnatal age better predicted CL than postmenstrual age alone. CL was affected by dopamine and furosemide administration and non-significantly by indometacin. Body weight, gestational age and dopamine coadminstration significantly influenced Vc. Model based simulation confirms that preterm infants need higher dose, superior to 4 mg/kg, and extended interval dosage regimen to achieve adequate concentration.
Conclusions: This study, performed on a very large cohort of neonates, identified important factors influencing gentamicin PK. The model will serve to elaborate a Bayesian tool for dosage individualization based on a single measurement.
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